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" In a hundred ages of the gods, I could not tell thee of the glories of the Himalaya".... Thus does tradition call down to us from the Puranas. The Himalaya, is a spectacle of awesome dimensions... ranges upon ranges, tiers of rock, sharp sky piercing peaks and canyons, deep beyond measure.......how did this come about, whence rose these citadels of ice...how did this three thousand kilometer long mountain range come into existence?, for the Himalaya is not only the most impressive of all the mountain chains, but also the youngest You have to stretch your imagination a bit to comprehend the cataclysmic events that led to the formation of the Himalayan ranges.
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According to the most accepted geological theories, India once belonged to an Island continent called Gondwanaland and was separated from the Eurasian continent by the primordial Tethyan Ocean. One billion years ago, the Aravallis, whose eroded remnants are visible around Delhi, formed a chain higher than the Himalayas today. Over millions of years these mountains suffered the forces of erosion and their sediments were deposited in the Tethyan Ocean. Then 140 million years ago, India began its northward movement, on a collision course with the Eurasian continent.
The point where the two continents were joined is known, appropriately, as the Indus- Yarlung Suture zone, marked by the courses of these two greatest rivers of the Kailash. After 60 million years, the Indian and Asian plates became closely welded along this suture zone. The northward movement of India continued but at a slower rate - 2-3 centimeters per year.
Geographically the range has been traditionally divided into:-
1. The Punjab Himalaya....... consisting of the catchment basins of the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutluj.
2. The Garhwal Himalaya ...... consisting of the catchments basins of the Yamuna and the Ganga.
3. The Kumaon Himalaya
4. The Nepal Himalaya
5. Sikkim..... the basin of the teesta & The Eastern Himalaya.... the Brahmaputra and it's left bank tributaries